Friday, October 18, 2013

Antenna Glossary
 
Antenna: A metallic device used in the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. An antenna is a passive or an active device which permits transmission.

Antenna Power Gain: The ratio of the antenna's maximum radiation intensity in a stated direction to the maximum radiation intensity of a reference antenna (dipole, isotropic antenna) with identical power applied to both.

Attenuation: The loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points.

Azimuth: Horizontal direction expressed as the angular distance between the direction of a fixed point (as the observer's heading) and the direction of the object.

Bandwidth: A range of consecutive frequencies comprised of a band (i.e. the US cellular bandwidth is 72 MHz wide between the frequencies of 824 MHz - 894 MHz) over which an antenna shall perform without the need of any adjustment.

Base Station: In a cellular communication system, a base station could be considered a central mode of transmission and reception for the network. Currently, this station includes an omnidirectional antenna or several sectoral antennas.

Beamwidth: The angle of signal coverage provided by an antenna. Beamwidth typically decreases as antenna gain increases.

Cable Loss: A numeric value describing the amount or signal loss from one point on a length of cable to another. This is measured in decibels (dB).

Center Fed: Transmission line connection at the electrical center of an antenna radiator.

Coaxial Cable: Cable consisting of a single copper conductor in the center surrounded by a plastic layer for insulation and a braided metal outer shield. Coax is used to transfer radio frequency energy from the transmitter to the antenna.

Collinear Array: A system of two or more antenna radiators arranged in a line and connected end-to-end to generate a directed field pattern (serial linear topology).

Coupler: Referring to on-glass antennas, a coupler is the two-piece interface between the coaxial cable on the inside of the glass and the radiator on the outside of the vehicle. It is designed to efficiently couple RF energy through the glass. The formulation of the glass and glass thickness normally have a substantial effect on coupler performance.

dBd: Quantification of the gain for an antenna in comparison with the gain of a dipole.

dBi: The dB power relative to an isotropic source.

dBm: A measure of power based upon the decibel scale, but referenced to the milliWatt: i.e. 1dBm = .001 Watt. dBm is often used to describe absolute power level where the point of reference is 1 milliWatt. In high power applications the dBW is often used with a reference of 1 Watt.

dBW: The ratio of the power to one Watt expressed in decibels.

DC Ground: An antenna which is a dead short to a DC current, and has a shunt fed design. To RF it is not seen as a short.

Dipole: An antenna — usually a half wavelength long — split at the exact center for connection to a feed line.

Directional Antenna: An antenna having the property of radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves more effectively in some directions than others.

Directivity: The theoretical characteristic of an antenna to concentrate power in only one direction, whether transmitting or receiving.

Driven Element: A radiator element of an antenna system to which the transmission line is connected.

Efficiency: The ratio of useful output to input power, determined in antenna systems by losses in the system including losses in nearby objects.

Electrically Small Antenna: Some antennas (such as various low profile antennas, some base loaded whips and often rubber duckie portable antennas) are physically considerably smaller than either a 1/2 or 1/4 wavelength antenna. The challenge with electrically small antennas is to maintain radiating efficiency. A greater challenge is to design an antenna with adequate bandwidth. Careful design using high quality materials often overcome these obstacles.

Embedded Antennas: Antennas directly integrated into a system such as an access point, a terminal or a handset. In most cases, this antenna is matched to the system and can not be used in other applications without modification.

E-Plane and H-Plane: Antenna measurements in general and radiation patterns in particular must be performed with polarization in mind. Since polarization is defined as having the same orientation as an antenna's electric field vector, it is common practice to refer to measurements aligned with either the electric vector ( E-plane) or magnetic vector (H-plane).

ERP: Effective Radiated Power.

Fiber Optic Cable: A cable, consisting of a center glass core surrounded by layers of plastic that transmits data using light rather than electricity. It has the ability to carry more information over much longer distance.

Field Strength: An absolute measure in one direction of the electromagnetic wave field generated by an antenna at some distance away from the antenna.

Frequency: The number of cycles per second of a wave.

Front-To-Back Ratio: The ratio of radiated power off the front to the back of a directive antenna. A dipole would have a ratio of 1, for example.

Full Duplex: Refers to a communication system or equipment capable of transmission and reception simultaneously.

Gain: Gain is the practical value of the directivity of an antenna. It takes into account the efficiency of the complete structure.

Gigahertz (GHz): One billion cycles per second.

GPS: Global Positional Satellite or Global Positioning System.

Ground Plane: A man made system of conductors placed below an antenna to serve as an earth ground.

Hertz (Hz): A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.

Impedance: The Ohmic value of an antenna feed point, matching section or transmission line at a radio frequency. An Impedance may contain a reactance as well as a resistance component.

Lightning Protector: A device designed to divert large surges of current such as a lightning strike from reaching the RF equipment. There are many types of lightning protectors including Quarter Wave Stub and Gas Discharge Tubes.

Load: The electrical entity to which power is delivered. The antenna system is a load for a transmitter.

Megahertz (MHz): 1 million cycles per second.

Mount: A mount is the device onto which a mobile antenna attaches. It is the mechanical and electrical interface between an antenna and the vehicle.

Noise: Any unwanted and un-modulated energy that is always present to some extent within any signal.

Omnidirectional: An antenna providing a 360-degree transmission pattern. This type of antenna is used when coverage in all directions is required.

Parabolic Antenna: An antenna consisting of a parabolic reflector and a radiating or receiving element at or near its focus. Parabolic antennas are very directive and includes a preliminary source and a parabolic reflector to focus the energy.

PCB: Printed Circuit Board.

Planar Array: An antenna in which all of the elements, both active and parasitic, are in one plane.

Point-to-Point: A communications channel running from one point to another.

Point-to-Multipoint: A communications channel running from one point to several other points.

Polarization: The sense of the wave radiated by an antenna. This can be horizontal, vertical, elliptical or circular (left or right hand circularity) depending on the design and application.

Radiation Pattern: The graphical representation of the relative field strength radiated from an antenna in a given plane, plotted against the angular distance from a given reference.

Radiator: A discrete conductor radiating RF energy in an antenna system.

Radome: A typically rigid dielectric cover over the radiating portion of an antenna, and nearly always separated from the radiator by an air gap. A radome (the merger of radar and dome) has the purpose of protecting the radiator from natural weather phenomena and contamination by dirt. It usually includes aerodynamic shaping to minimize wind loading.

Receiver (Rx): An electronic device which enables a particular signal to be separated from all and converts the signal format into a format for video, voice or data.

Relative Antenna Power Gain: The ratio of the average radiation intensity of the test antenna to the average radiation of a reference antenna with all other conditions remaining equal.

RFDC: Radio Frequency Data Communications.

RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification.

RSSi: Received Signal Strength Indicator. Provides a signal for logic circuit processing that is a function of received RF signal strength. RSSI is used both by the switch and the mobile or portable.

Standard Impedance: The nominal impedance associated with the transmission line and test equipment.

Transmission Line: The connecting link allowing the radio frequency energy generated by the radio to be delivered to the antenna. (Coaxial cable, microstrip or coplanar lines in our industry.)

Transmitter : An electronic device consisting of oscillator, modulator and other circuits which produce a radio electromagnetic wave signal for radiation into the atmosphere by an antenna.

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR): VSWR of the antenna is the ratio of the maximum to minimum values of voltage in the standing wave pattern appearing along a lossless 50 Ohms transmission line with an antenna as the load.

Thursday, July 25, 2013

Satelite Frequency












AO-51
















Receive Frequency Transmit Frequency Offset Frequency Offset Direction Operating Mode Name Tone Mode Tone

435.16500 145.88000   Split FM 51 +3 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.16000 145.88000   Split FM 51 +2 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.15500 145.88000   Split FM 51 +1 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.15000 145.88000   Split FM 51 MID Tone 67.0 Hz

435.14500 145.88000   Split FM 51 -1 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.14000 145.88000   Split FM 51 -2 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.13500 145.88000   Split FM 51 -3 Tone 67.0 Hz










SO-50
















Receive Frequency Transmit Frequency Offset Frequency Offset Direction Operating Mode Name Tone Mode Tone

436.81500 145.85000   Split FM 50 +4 Tone 67.0 Hz

436.81000 145.85000   Split FM 50 +3 Tone 67.0 Hz

436.80500 145.85000   Split FM 50 +2 Tone 67.0 Hz

436.80000 145.85000   Split FM 50 +1 Tone 67.0 Hz

436.79500 145.85000   Split FM 50 MID Tone 67.0 Hz

436.79000 145.85000   Split FM 50 -1 Tone 67.0 Hz

436.78500 145.85000   Split FM 50 -2  Tone 67.0 Hz

436.78000 145.85000   Split FM 50 -3 Tone 67.0 Hz

436.79500 145.85000   Split FM 50 74 Tone 74.4 Hz










AO-27
















Receive Frequency Transmit Frequency Offset Frequency Offset Direction Operating Mode Name Tone Mode Tone

436.81500 145.85000   Split FM 27 +4 Off 0.0 Hz

436.81000 145.85000   Split FM 27 +3 Off 0.0 Hz

436.80500 145.85000   Split FM 27 +2 Off 0.0 Hz

436.80000 145.85000   Split FM 27 +1 Off 0.0 Hz

436.79500 145.85000   Split FM 27 MID Off 0.0 Hz

436.79000 145.85000   Split FM 27 -1 Off 0.0 Hz

436.78500 145.85000   Split FM 27 -2 Off 0.0 Hz

436.78000 145.85000   Split FM 27 -3 Off 0.0 Hz










SO-67
















Receive Frequency Transmit Frequency Offset Frequency Offset Direction Operating Mode Name Tone Mode Tone

435.35500 145.87500   Split FM 67 +2 Off 0.0 Hz

435.35000 145.87500   Split FM 67 +1 Off 0.0 Hz

435.34500 145.87500   Split FM 67 MID Off 0.0 Hz

435.34000 145.87500   Split FM 67 -1 Off 0.0 Hz

435.33500 145.87500   Split FM 67 -2 Off 0.0 Hz










HO-68
















Receive Frequency Transmit Frequency Offset Frequency Offset Direction Operating Mode Name Tone Mode Tone

435.69000 145.82500   Split FM 68 +3 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.68500 145.82500   Split FM 68 +2 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.68000 145.82500   Split FM 68 +1 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.67500 145.82500   Split FM 68 MID Tone 67.0 Hz

435.67000 145.82500   Split FM 68 -1 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.66500 145.82500   Split FM 68 -2 Tone 67.0 Hz

435.66000 145.82500   Split FM 68 -3 Tone 67.0 Hz










International Space Station














Receive Frequency Transmit Frequency Offset Frequency Offset Direction Operating Mode Name Tone Mode Tone

437.81500 145.80000   Split FM ISS +3 Off 0.0 Hz

437.81000 145.80000   Split FM ISS +2 Off 0.0 Hz

437.80500 145.80000   Split FM ISS +1 Off 0.0 Hz

437.80000 145.80000   Split FM ISS M Off 0.0 Hz

437.79500 145.80000   Split FM ISS -1 Off 0.0 Hz

437.79000 145.80000   Split FM ISS -2 Off 0.0 Hz

437.78500 145.80000   Split FM ISS -3 Off 0.0 Hz






























































































































Tuesday, April 23, 2013

KODE POS KOTA JAMBI

  



KODE POS KOTA JAMBI
KELURAHAN / DESA                                                        KODE POS
Kode Pos Kecamatan Danau Teluk          
Kode Pos Ulu Gedong                                                                  36261
Kode Pos Olak Kemang                                                               36262
Kode Pos Tanjung Pasir                                                                36263
Kode Pos Tanjung Raden                                                              36264
Kode Pos Pasir Panjang                                                                36265

Kode Pos Kecamatan Jambi Selatan       
Kode Pos Wijaya Pura                                                                 36131
Kode Pos Pakuan Baru                                                                36132
Kode Pos The Hok                                                                      36138
Kode Pos Eka Jaya                                                                      36139
Kode Pos Lingkar Selatan                                                            36139
Kode Pos Paal Merah                                                                  36139
Kode Pos Pasir Putih                                                                   36139
Kode Pos Talang Bakung                                                             36139
Kode Pos Tambak Sari                                                                36139
               
Kode Pos Kecamatan Jambi Timur          
Kode Pos Kasang                                                                       36141
Kode Pos Kasang Jaya                                                               36141
Kode Pos Talang Banjar                                                             36142
Kode Pos Rajawali                                                                     36143
Kode Pos Sulan Jana                                                                  36144
Kode Pos Budiman                                                                     36145
Kode Pos Tanjung Pinang                                                           36146
Kode Pos Tanjung Sari                                                               36147
Kode Pos Payo Selincah/Silincah                                                36148
Kode Pos Sijenjang (Sijinjang                                                     36149

Kode Pos Kecamatan Jelutung  
Kode Pos Talang Jauh                                                                36133
Kode Pos Cempaka Putih                                                          36134
Kode Pos Lebak Bandung                                                         36135
Kode Pos Payo Lebar                                                               36135
Kode Pos Jelutung                                                                     36136
Kode Pos Handil Jaya                                                                36137
Kode Pos Kebun Handil                                                            36137

Kode Pos Kecamatan Kota Baru                
Kode Pos Rawa Sari                                                                 36125
Kode Pos Simpang Tiga Sipin                                                    36126
Kode Pos Suka Karya                                                              36127
Kode Pos Kenali Asam Atas                                                     36128
Kode Pos Kenali Asam Bawah                                                 36128
Kode Pos Paal Lima                                                                 36128
Kode Pos Bagan Pete                                                               36129
Kode Pos Beliung Patah                                                            36129
Kode Pos Kenali Besar                                                             36129
Kode Pos Mayang Mangurai                                                     36129
               
Kode Pos Kecamatan Pasar Jambi           
Kode Pos Orang Kayo Hitam                                                   36111
Kode Pos Beringin                                                                    36112
Kode Pos Pasar Jambi                                                              36133
Kode Pos Sungai Asam                                                            36134

Kode Pos Kecamatan Pelayangan            
Kode Pos Arab Melayu                                                            36251
Kode Pos Mudung Laut                                                            36252
Kode Pos Jelmu                                                                        36253
Kode Pos Tengah                                                                      36254
Kode Pos Tahtul Yaman                                                            36255
Kode Pos Tanjung Johor                                                           36256
               
Kode Pos Kecamatan Telanaipura           
Kode Pos Legok                                                                       36121
Kode Pos Murni                                                                        36121
Kode Pos Solok Sipin                                                               36121
Kode Pos Sungai Putri                                                              36122
Kode Pos Telanaipura                                                               36122
Kode Pos Buluran Kenali                                                          36123
Kode Pos Teluk Kenali                                                             36123
Kode Pos Penyengat Rendah                                                    36124
Kode Pos Simpang Empat Sipin                                                36124
Kode Pos Pematang Sulur                                                         36129
Kode Pos Selamat                                                                    36129